Study Title: "Study Awareness Raising and Capacity Building about Electronic Waste in Nepal", 2011
Supporting Agency: International SAICM Implementation Project
Electronic waste or E-waste, for short, is a generic term embracing various forms of electronic and electronic equipment that have ceased to be of any value to their owners. There is not yet a standard definition of e-waste. However, e-waste has been defined internationally such as:
EU WEEE Directives (EU, 2002a): Electrical of electronic equipment which is waste... including all components, sub assemblies and consumables, which are part of the product at the time of discarding DIrectives 75/442/EEC, article 1(a) defines waste as any substances or object which the holder disposes of or is required to dispose of pursuant for the provisions of natural law in force.
Basal Action Network (Puckett and Smith, 2002): E-waste encompasses a broad and growing range of electronic devices ranging from large household device such as refrigerator, air conditioner, cell phones, personal stereos and consumer electronics to computers which have been discarded by there users.
Description of the situation of e-waste in country:
There was not any recorded data, or published reference publications about e-waste generation in the country available; hence this was the first attempt to gather first-hand information about waste generation and waste that comes in from outside the country. A very rigorous field visit, as well as desktop study, were made to gather information and develop the IEC materials on e-waste in the for of briefing papers, posters, etc.
For detail study findings and full report click here.
Health Care Waste
Study Title: Environmental Health Condition of Hospitals in Nepal, 2012
Technical and Financial Support: World Health Organization, Country Office for Nepal
Study was conducted with objective to develop evidence based paper on Environmental Health Conditions of Hospitals in Nepal. Study was conducted on 14 Governmental Hospitals, 15 Private Hospitals and 2 Mission Hospitals.
Health Care Waste Management:
There are several kinds of hazardous waste and each requires separate collection, transportation, specific treatment and disposal methods, which include encapsulation, sterilization, burial, incineration and long-term storage. Some wastes, such as pharmaceutical wastes, cannot be disposed of in low-cost settings and should be sent to a large center for destruction or returned to the supplier. The waste-disposal zone should be fenced off; it should have a water point with soap or detergent and disinfectant for hand washing or to clean and disinfect containers, with facilities for waste-water disposal into a soak away system or sewer. The waste-disposal zone should also be located at least 30m from groundwater sources. Following diagrams represents the hospital waste management approaches.
Findings of the study are as follows:
- Only one public hospital has complete onsite source separation but not in all wards. 3.23% (1 private) of hospital have good source separation of waste. While 32.26% of the hospitals have acceptable level of source separation practices. 61.29% of hospitals have very poor source separation including completely absence of such practices in 6.45% (2 private) of the hospitals.
- Only 3.23% (1 public) hospital has very good waste collection system; 12.90% have acceptable level, whereas 80.65% of hospitals (6 private and 4 governmental) do not practices appropriate and separately waste collection.
- Only 22.58% of hospitals have relatively appropriate and separate transport of waste and remaining large 67.42% of hospitals have very poor transportation.
- Only one hospital (3.23%) have adopted environment sound management treatment practices, another 6.45% hospital does have acceptable level waste treatment practices whereas rest 90.32% hospitals do not practices environment sound waste treatment system at all.
- Only one public hospital (3.23%) have adopted very good waste disposal system and; 6.45% public hospital does have good disposal system; 9.68% of the private hospitals have acceptable level of waste disposal practices whereas 80.65% hospitals do not practices safe disposal of health-care waste.